After the straight-fronted corset became fashionable in the early 20th century, a bra or "bust supporter" became a necessity for full-busted women because the straight-fronted corset did not offer as much support and containment as the Victorian styles. Archived from the original on 18 March Dissatisfied with this arrangement, she worked with her maid to fashion two silk handkerchiefs together with some pink ribbon and cord. On Female Body Experience:
After seeing Jane Russell and her bust in the movie, women sought to recreate the look on their own chests. The war presented unique challenges for industry. Women's occupations shifted dramatically, with far more employed outside the home and in industry. Severe material shortages limited design choices. Advertising, promotion, and consumerism were limited but started to appear directed at minorities e. Many manufacturers only survived by making tents and parachutes in addition to bras.
American industry was now freed from European influences, particularly French, and it became more distinctive. Again there was concern about the use of badly needed steel in corsets and the British Government carried out a survey of women's usage of underwear in This showed that "on average, women owned 1.
Following the Second World War, material availability, production and marketing, and demand for a greater variety of consumer goods, including bras. The baby boom specifically created a demand for maternity and nursing bras , and television provided new promotional opportunities.
Manufacturers responded with new fabrics, colours, patterns, styles, padding and elasticity. Hollywood fashion and glamour influenced women's fashion choices including bras like the cone-shaped, spiral-stitched bullet bra popularized by actresses like Patti Page , Marilyn Monroe , and Lana Turner , who was nicknamed the " Sweater Girl ". Bras for pre-teen and girls entering puberty were first marketed during the s. The s reflected increasing interest in quality and fashion.
Maternity and mastectomy bras began to find a new respectability, and the increasing use of washing machines created a need for products that were more durable. While girdles gave way to pantyhose, the bra continued to evolve. Marketing campaigns like those for the "Snoozable" and "Sweet Dreams"  promoted wearing a bra 24 hours a day.
In at the feminist Miss America protest , protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can. A local news story in the Atlantic City Press erroneously reported that "the bras, girdles, falsies, curlers, and copies of popular women's magazines burned in the 'Freedom Trash Can'".
Feminism and "bra-burning" became linked in popular culture. Dow has suggested that the association between feminism and bra-burning was encouraged by individuals who opposed the feminist movement. This might lead individuals to believe, as she wrote in her article "Feminism, Miss America, and Media Mythology," that the women were merely trying to be "trendy, and to attract men.
This view may have supported the efforts of opponents to feminism and their desire to invalidate the movement. On June 4, , Rudy Gernreich 's single-piece, topless monokini swimsuit received worldwide media attention. In the process, he has ripped out the boning and wiring that made American swimsuits seagoing corsets.
Gernreich followed that in October with the "No Bra", a soft-cup, light-weight, seamless, sheer nylon and elastic tricot bra in sizes 32 to 36, A and B cups, manufactured by Exquisite Form. His minimalist bra was a revolutionary departure from the heavy, torpedo-shaped bras of the s, initiating a trend toward more natural shapes and soft, sheer fabrics. It has 54 design elements that lift and support the bustline while creating a deep plunge and push-together effect.
Germaine Greer 's book The Female Eunuch became associated with the anti-bra movement because she pointed out how restrictive and uncomfortable a bra could be. In the s, like other garment makers, bra manufacturers moved production offshore. The contemporary bra also reflects advances in manufacturing and availability of fabric types and colours, enabling it to be transformed from a utilitarian item to a fashion statement, countering the negative attitudes some women had about bras.
Designers have also incorporated numerous devices to produce varying shapes, cleavage, and to give women bras they could wear with open-back dresses, off-the-shoulder dresses, plunging necklines, and the like. Throughout the s fashion led the way in the look and feel of bras. Western TV shows featured classy, powerful, and well-formed ladies, usually donning low cut tops to show an enhanced chest with an equally classy matching bra.
The onset of classy and stylish Teddy suits also encompassed this decade and sales of silicone increased the need for bigger and more supportive bras.
Models and celebrities all donned fashionable and extravagant bras, showing these off at red carpets events become the norm. In contrast, feminist Susan Brownmiller in her book Femininity took the position that women without bras shock and anger men because men "implicitly think that they own breasts and that only they should remove bras. Manufacturers' marketing and advertising often appeals to fashion and image over fit, comfort and function.
With the growing popularity of jogging and other forms of exercise, it became apparent that there was a need for an athletic garment for women's breasts. One of the original Jogbras is bronzed and on display near the costume shop of the theatre. Two design challenges that bra manufacturers face at present seem paradoxical. On the one hand, there is a demand for minimal bras that allow plunging necklines and reduce interference with the lines of outer garments, such as the shelf bra.
On the other hand, body mass and bust size is increasing,  leading to a higher demand for larger sizes. The s brought two large design changes to the bra. This construction can include padded bras, contour bras and so-called T-shirt bras. Also new and ubiquitous in the s was the popularity of printed designs such as floral or patterned prints. Large corporations such as HanesBrands Inc. Victoria's Secret is an exception. Feminist author Iris Marion Young wrote in that the bra "serves as a barrier to touch" and that a braless woman is " deobjectified ", eliminating the "hard, pointy look that phallic culture posits as the norm.
Like other clothing, bras were initially sewn by small production companies and supplied to various retailers. The term "cup" was not used to describe bras until , and manufacturers relied on stretchable cups to accommodate different sized breasts. Camp and Company correlated the size and pendulousness of a woman's breasts to letters of the alphabet: Adjustable bands were introduced using multiple eye and hook positions in the s.
There is an urban legend that the bra was invented by a man named Otto Titzling "tit sling" who lost a lawsuit with Phillip de Bra "fill up the bra". This originated with the book Bust-Up: In , Danish Fashion historian Rudolf Kristian Albert Broby-Johansen wrote that the topless look, which liberated breasts from bras, should be treated seriously.
He asserted that it was a way for a new generation of women to express themselves. In , he wrote an article titled "Obituary for the Bra" in which he predicted the imminent demise of bras.
Brassieres are worn by the great majority of women in Western society. Women, health professionals, feminists and fashion writers appear to be increasingly questioning its place and function, and asking whether it will go the way of pantyhose, garter belts and stockings.
It is now commonplace to see models and other celebrities who do not wear bras in public,  including Britney Spears ,  Claire Danes ,  Lindsay Lohan ,  and Nadine Coyle . Many outergarments like sundresses, tank tops, and formal evening wear are designed to be worn without bras.
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The specific problem is: September Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 10 March Corsets and Crinolines 1st ed.
Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 22 March Clothing and Fashion Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 19 January Archived from the original on 26 March Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 13 June Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 3 November Archived from the original on 9 December Archived from the original on 15 November The girdle of Aphrodite-Venus Archived from the original on 29 June Clarke, Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art B.
Rizza Catania, , p. The College of New Rochelle. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 7 May Erotik in der Römischen Kunst in German. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie. Archived from the original on 20 December The rose of Martinique: Archived from the original on 29 March America's Dress Reform Movement of the s".
Archived from the original on 14 December Archived from the original on 21 May The Bra in America. University of Pennsylvania Press. Archived from the original on 23 October Mothers and Daughters of Invention: Notes for a Revised History of Technology. Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 24 January A new method for determining bra size and predicting post-augmentation breast size.
Archived from the original on 4 February The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 April Professor Farrell-Beck said the antecedents for underwire in bras date to at least , when Marie Tucek of New York City patented a breast supporter , a sort of early push-up bra made of either metal or cardboard and then covered with fabric. A Life of Caresse Crosby. Archived from the original on 26 June Archived from the original on 12 May The Complete Idiot's Guide to Breastfeeding.
Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 18 June Archived from the original on 16 October Vaughn notes that smaller-breasted women can't avoid the cosmetic issues that come with going braless, even if they're not likely to experience pain. If you choose not to wear a bra when you're younger, you're going to see more sagging as you get older.
You can't take it back and reset," Dr. To avoid neck and shoulder pain, the way your bra fits is key. It's not hard to dig up headlines claiming that way too many women out there are wearing the wrong bra size. But wearing the wrong size of bra can be detrimental to your health. Vaughn cautions women to not just buy the same size bra out of habit.
Another problem lies in the types of bras women are buying. So why all the bulk? If you think about the design of a bra, the weight of the breasts in front is carried in that back strap, where it's distributed across the spine. Those daintier, smaller bands don't spread out the weight as well as thicker bands do, which can lead to back pain, bone spurs and degenerative changes seen later on X-rays. As for those shoulder straps, they bear the brunt of the vertical weight and stress.
When they're standing there without anything on, you can see the marks and indentations on their shoulder, which create shoulder problems and possibly even neck pain.
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